Types of liver transplantation

Liver is the Largest Solid Organ of Human body, Overall it performs around 500 essential tasks to support smooth functioning of the body.  What will happen if Liver stops performing its functions one after the other? We call this condition as “Liver Failure” and the only approved treatment for the failed Liver is Liver Transplant. Liver transplantation is the process where part of the liver or the whole organ from died donor replaces within patient’s body through surgery. Mainly liver failure happens due to cirrhosis, which is the long term problem. There are basically two types of liver failure, Acute Liver Failure i.e. sudden failure of Liver (mostly happens because of side effects of drugs or overdose) and chronic Liver Failure i.e long term Liver problem (cirrhosis).

There are three types of liver transplantation as per Clinical Classification.

1)            Living Donor Liver Transplantation (LDLT) - In this type of Liver Transplant the diseased liver of the patient is removed and replaced with the part of Healthy Liver taken form a willing and Suitable Family Member or a very close Friend. Liver is the only organ in the body which can recover by itself, so when a donor donate a part of their liver to the patient, Both parts (For donor and Patients) grow into normal sizes and shape again after the recovery and donor can lead their life normally. Even the patient who has taken the part of liver can recover his whole liver with the healthy part of the liver and it gets merge with the rest of the body part. Before Liver Donation the Donor will be investigated thoroughly for Donor eligibility. Risk of Life from donating a liver is 0.5 to 1.0%, Which makes it safer than a tooth removal.

2)            Cadaver Donor Liver Transplantation (CDLT) – In this type of Transplant the Healthy Liver is sourced from a Brain Dead person(Cadaver) and transplanted in to the Diseased  Liver Patient. This transplantation takes place with the whole liver of the person and not with the part. In any given Instance there are more patients needing Cadaver Liver for transplant than Cadaver available as Liver donors.

3)            Auxiliary Liver Transplantation–In this type of Liver Transplant a part of the healthy liver from the donor is transplanted into patient, without completely removing the diseased liver of the patient.  It’s done for the purpose of in case of spontaneous recovery or if there is a potential of future gene therapy for selected cases. This type is rarely used now days.

To do Liver donation the donor should be from matching blood group of the Liver Patient and the donor should be a healthy adult and not old age person. For Details about Donor Matching please check Donor Eligibility page.

Living Donor Liver transplantation has been pioneered in India due to low availability of Cadaver Organs due to various social and logistical reasons. To have better chances of success rates and better control on the timeline of Disease progression and Liver Transplant, following is advised by the Experienced Liver Transplant Co-Ordinators.

  • Its advisable to first prefer for a Living Donor Liver Transplant if there is Matching Family donor Available.
  • In case there is a Non –Matching Family Donor, then Swap Liver Transplant with a Matching pair is Advisable. For more Information on Swap Liver Transplant Please Click here.
  • Only if there is No Liver Donor available whatsoever within Family and Friends then the Only and best Option is to Register for Cadaver Liver Transplant in the Hospital with the Least Waiting List. For More Information on the Cadaver Organ Transplant and Its Waiting List Please Click Here.

References

https://stanfordhealthcare.org/medical-treatments/l/liver-transplant/types.html
https://www.webmd.com/hepatitis/living-liver-donate
https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/liver-transplant/about/pac-20384842
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/departments/transplant/programs/liver/types
https://www.nhsinform.scot/tests-and-treatments/surgical-procedures/liver-transplant
https://www.news-medical.net/health/Types-of-liver-transplant.aspx
https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/liver-transplant/what-happens/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK6890/